Global Symposium on Constitutional Amendment and Replacement in Latin America

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O Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito da Universidade de Brasília irá realizar, nos dias 29 e 30 de setembro de 2016, o Global Symposium on Constitutional Amendment and Replacement in Latin America, reunindo grandes pesquisadores nacionais e estrangeiros para discutir os desdobramentos do direito constitucional latino-americano em perspectiva comparada. O evento é organizado pelos Professsores Richard Albert (Boston College), Juliano Zaiden Benvindo (UnB) e Carlos Bernal (Macquarie) e conta com apoio da International Society of Public Law (ICON-S), do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), da Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Distrito Federal (FAP-DF), e da Associação de Ex-Alunos da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Brasília (Alumni Direito.UnB).

A abertura do evento contará com a apresentação de palestra do Ministro Luís Roberto Barroso, do Supremo Tribunal Federal. Ao longo dos dois dias, serão realizadas mesas redondas em que os palestrantes e debatedores irão apresentar e discutir suas pesquisas na temática do evento. 

O evento também inaugurará o Centro de Pesquisa em Direito Constitucional Comparado da Universidade de Brasília.

Seguem a descrição, em inglês, do evento e a programação.

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The Graduate Program in Law of the University of Brasília will hold, on September 29-30, the Global Symposium on Constitutional Amendment and Replacement in Latin America, when researchers from distinct countries will discuss the most current developments in Latin American constitutionalism in a comparative perspective. The event is convened by Richard Albert (Boston College), Juliano Zaiden Benvindo (UnB) and Carlos Bernal (Macquarie), under the auspices of The International Society of Public Law (ICON-S), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Distrito Federal (FAP-DF), and the Alumni of the University of Brasília Law School.

Justice Luís Roberto Bardoso, of the Brazilian Supreme Court, will deliver the keynote address. During the two days, there will be roundtables where participants and discussants will present and discuss their researches on the subject of the event. 

The event will also launch the Center for Comparative Constitutional Research of the University of Brasília.


A Global Symposium on

Constitutional Amendment and Replacement in Latin America

University of Brasília Law School Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro Brasília-DF, Brazil

September 29-30, 2016

Convened by

Juliano Zaiden Benvindo (University of Brasília)

Richard Albert (Boston College)

Carlos Bernal (Macquarie)

With the Support of

Boston College Law School

University of Macquarie School of Law

Under the Auspices of

The International Society of Public Law (ICON-S)

Thursday, September 29

9:00am Welcoming Remarks

Juliano Zaiden Benvindo (University Brasília)

9:15am Keynote Address

Justice Luis Roberto Barroso

Supreme Court of Brazil / Rio de Janeiro State University

Title TBC

Joaquim Nabuco Auditorium, UnB Law School

10:15am Break

10:30am Plenary Address

Carlos Bernal (Macquarie)

Constitution-Making (without Constituent) Power

Joaquim Nabuco Auditorium, UnB Law School

11:00am Plenary Address

Richard Albert (Boston College)

Amendment and Revision in the Unmaking of Constitutions

Joaquim Nabuco Auditorium, UnB Law School

11:30am Plenary Address

Juliano Zaiden Benvindo (University of Brasília)

“Global South” Syndrome in Latin America? Methodological Dilemmas in a Changing Region.

Joaquim Nabuco Auditorium, UnB Law School

12:00pm Break

2:30pm Panel Discussion: Mechanisms of Formal Constitutional Change

Chair: Richard Albert (Boston College)

Discussant: Virgílio Afonso da Silva (University of São Paulo)

Leonardo Augusto de Andrade Barbosa (CEFOR, Brazilian Chamber of Deputies)

Legislative Process and Constitutional Change in Brazil: On the Pathologies of the Procedure of Amending the 1988 Constitution

Mariana Velasco Rivera (Yale)

Mexico’s Constitutional Entrenchment Mirage

Cristiano Paixão (University of Brasília)

Between Ordinary and Extraordinary: The Struggle for Constitutional Change in Post-1988 Brazil

Francisca Pou Giménez (Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México) & Andrea Pozas-Loyo (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)

The Paradox of Mexican Self-Reinforcing Hyper-Reformism: Enabling Peaceful Transition while Blocking Democratic Consolidation

Joaquim Nabuco Auditorium, UnB Law School

7:00pm Dinner

Friday, September 30

9:00pm Panel Discussion: Stability and Change in Latin American Constitutionalism

Chair: Juliano Zaiden Benvindo (University of Brasília)

Discussant: Marcelo Neves (University of Brasília)

Fernando José Gonçalves Acunha (University of Brasília/UniCEUB) Stability and Change in Latin America: The Ever Present Authoritarianism and the Democratic Capacities of the New Latin-American Constitutions

Miguel Calmon Dantas (Federal University of Bahia/UNIFACS)

Between Change and Stability: The Unamendable Constitutional Rules in Times of Crisis

Breno Baía Magalhães (University of Amazônia/FIBRA)

Subnational Constitutionalism and Constitutional Change in Brazil: The Impact of Federalism in Constitutional Stability

Pablo Contreras (Universidad Alberto Hurtado) & Domingo Lovera (Universidad Diego Portales)

A Constituted Constituent Power? Chile’s Struggle to Replace Pinochet’s Constitution

Joaquim Nabuco Auditorium, UnB Law School

2:30pm Panel Discussion: Judicial Review and Constitutional Change

Chair: Carlos Bernal (Macquarie)

Discussant: Conrado Hübner Mendes (University of São Paulo)

Discussant: Mohamed Arafa (Indiana University/University of Alexandria)

Eneida Desiree Salgado (Federal University of Paraná) & Carolina Alves das Chagas (Federal University of Paraná)

The Judicial Review of Constitutional Amendments in Brazil and the Super-Countermajoritarian Role of the Brazilian Supreme Court – The Case of the “ADI 5017”

Gonzalo Andrés Ramírez-Cleves (Universidad Externado de Colombia)

Constitutional Amendments in the Colombian Peace Process

Diego Werneck Arguelhes (Getúlio Vargas Foundation) & Mariana Mota Prado (University of Toronto)

Interpreting Reforms: Supreme Court Reversal of Constitutional Reforms in Democratic Brazil in the 90s.

Joaquim Nabuco Auditorium, UnB Law School

5:00pm Break

5:30pm Panel Discussion: Text and Reality in Constitutional Change

Chair: Richard Albert (Boston College)

Discussant: Lucas Arrimada (University of Buenos Aires/University of Palermo)

Ana Beatriz Robalinho (Yale/University of São Paulo)

Constitutional Mutation: Informal Amendment and Democratic Legitimacy in Brazil

Alexandre Araújo Costa (University of Brasília) & Guilherme Sena de Assunção (UniCEUB) 

Corporatist Amendments and Checks and Balances in Brazilian Constitutionalism

Room A1-04, UnB Law School

6:30pm Closing Remarks

Juliano Zaiden Benvindo (University Brasília)

7:00pm Closing Dinner

Keynote Speaker

Justice Luis Roberto Barroso has been a Member of the Brazilian Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal) since 2013 and Full Professor of Constitutional Law at the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). He holds a Bachelor of Law from the State University of Rio de Janeiro (1980), an LL.M from Yale Law School (1989) and a Ph.D from the State University of Rio de Janeiro (2008). He was a Post-Doctoral Visiting Researcher at Harvard Law School (2011), Visiting Professor at the University of Poitiers, France (2010), University of Wroclaw, Poland (2009), and University of Brasília (2009). He has extensively published in the field of constitutional law, administrative and regulatory law in Portuguese, English, and Spanish.

Convenors

Richard Albert is a tenured Associate Professor and Nicholson Scholar at Boston College Law School. He scholarship focuses on constitutional amendment in comparative, doctrinal, historical and theoretical perspectives. He is currently writing a book on constitutional amendment, to be published by Oxford University Press. ?He is also co-editor of the forthcoming volumes: Canada in the World: Comparative Perspectives on the Canadian Constitution (Cambridge), The Foundations and Traditions of Constitutional Amendment (Hart), and the Oxford Handbook of Caribbean Constitutions (Oxford). A former law clerk to the Chief Justice of Canada, Richard Albert holds degrees in law and political science from Yale, Oxford and Harvard.

Juliano Zaiden Benvindo is Professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Brasilia, where he works as the Head of the Graduate Program in Law (Master and Ph.D.). His main areas of research are in the fields of comparative constitutional law, constitutional theory, constitutional politics, and constitutional history. He holds a Bachelor of Law (2003) and a Master in Legal Philosophy (2005) from the University of Brasília, and a Ph.D. in Public Law from the Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany (2009). In 2013-14, he worked as a post-doctoral visiting researcher at the Centre of European Law and Politics of the University of Bremen, Germany. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the University of Brasília Law Journal (Revista Direito.UnB). He has published articles and books in Portuguese and English in distinguished journals, publishers, and academic blogs. 

Carlos Bernal is an Associate Professor at Macquarie Law School (Sydney, Australia). He has research interests in the fields of constitutional comparative law, jurisprudence, and torts. He has published widely in all these fields in seven different languages. His qualifications include a LL.B. from the University Externado of Colombia (Bogota) (1996), a S.J.D. from the University of Salamanca (Spain) (2001), a M.A. (2008) and a Ph.D. in Philosophy (2011) from the University of Florida (U.S.A.). He has delivered guest lectures and presented papers in more than 20 countries.

Discussants

Mohamed Arafa is an Assistant Professor of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice at the University of Alexandria (Egypt) and Adjunct Professor teaching Islamic Law at Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law (USA). He holds a Bachelor of Laws from Alexandria University (2006), a Master of Laws (LL.M) in American Criminal Law and Criminal Justice from the University of Connecticut School of Law (2008) and a Doctor of Juridical Science (SJD) from Indiana University (2013). He has published many articles in law reviews in subjects such as Islamic Law, Corruption, Comparative Criminal Law, Middle Eastern and Egyptian Politics, Arab Spring. He has taught and held conferences in different universities worldwide.

Lucas Arrimada is Professor of the University of Buenos Aires and University of Palermo in Argentina. He is currently director of the Project “Democracy and Law in Jürgen Habermas” and was a Visiting Scholar at Yale Law School and Visiting Researcher at the Institute of Public Knowledge of New York University. He has intensively published in law journals and blogs, especially in the field of constitutional theory, political philosophy, and supreme courts. He runs the blog “Ante la Ley”, where he has published many articles on legal theory, new developments of Argentinian politics, supreme courts, among others. 

Conrado Hübner Mendes is Professor of Constitutional Law at the University of São Paulo. He holds a Bachelor of Laws from the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo (PUC-SP, 1999), Master (2004) and PhD (2008) in Political Science from the University of São Paulo, and a PhD in Law from the University of Edinburgh (2011). He was a HLA Hart Fellow at the University of Oxford, Visiting Fellow at the Max Planck for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Georg Forster Fellow at the Humboldt University of Berlin and the Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin, and Hauser Research Scholar at the New York University. He is Ambassador Scientist of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (2014-2017). He has intensively published books and articles in renowned Brazilian and international journals, especially in topics such as separation of powers, judicial review, supreme courts, basic rights, and theories of democracy and justice. 

Marcelo Neves is Full Professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Brasília. He holds a Bachelor (1980) and a Master in Law (1986) from the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Brazil, PhD from the University of Bremen, Germany (1991), and defended a Habilitation thesis at the University of Fribourg in Switzerland (2000). He carried out post-doctoral studies at the University of Frankfurt, London School of Economics and Political Science, Oxford University and Yale University. Before teaching in Brasília, he was a Full Professor at the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Visiting Professor at the University of Frankfurt and University of Flensburg (Germany), Professor at the FGV Foundation in São Paulo, Visiting Fellow at the University of Fribourg, European University Institute in Florence and University of Glasgow. He has intensively published books and articles in renowned Brazilian and international journals in Portuguese, English and German.

Virgílio Afonso da Silva is Full Professor of Constitutional Law at the University of São Paulo. He holds a Bachelor in Law (1995) and a Master in Law (1998) from the University of São Paulo, a PhD in Law from the University of Kiel, Germany (2002) and defended a Habilitation thesis at the University of São Paulo (2004). He was a fellow at the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law (2004) and at Humboldt University of Berlin (2011). He has intensively published books and articles in renowned Brazilian and international journals, especially in the field of constitutional interpretation, separation of powers, and theory of basic rights. 

Authors

Carolina Alves das Chagas is working towards her Master’s in Public Law at the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR). Her research at the UFPR’s Núcleo de Investigações Constitucionais focuses on constitutional law issues, such as judicial supremacy and review, constitutional dialogue, and constitutional amendment. Ms. Alves das Chagas holds an undergraduate degree from the UFPR.

Alexandre Araújo Costa is Professor of Philosophy of Law, Jurisprudence, and Constitutional Law at the University of Brasília (UnB). At UnB, he also teaches political philosophy in the Political Sciences Graduate Program and coordinates the Research Group on Politics and Law. His research interests include political and democratic theory, theories of the State, philosophical foundations of law and authority, constitutional law, and jurisprudence. He has recently published scholarship in the areas of law and politics, legal hermeneutics, legal discourse, and the behavior of the Brazilian Supreme Court. He holds a Bachelor of Laws, a Master of Laws (State and Constitutional), and a Doctor of Laws degree from the University of Brasília.

Breno Baía Magalhães is Professor of Constitutional Law at Universidade da Amazônia (UNAMA) and Faculdades Integradas Brasil Amazônia (FIBRA). His research interests involve constitutional theory, constitutionalism, judicial review, and constitutional rights. As part of his doctoral thesis, Professor Baía Magalhães researched international human rights law and theories of judicial dialogue between constitutional and international human rights courts. He has published several book chapters and articles in Brazil. His qualifications include a Bachelor of Law (2009), a Master of Law (2011), and a Ph.D. (2015) from the Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA).

Leonardo Barbosa is an expert in Brazilian constitutional matters and legislative affairs. He has been a legislative attorney with the Chamber of Deputies (the lower House of Brazilian Congress) since 2002, where he has served as Chief of Staff for the Minority Leadership, Senior Adviser for Official Conduct Matters, and as an attorney to the Office of the Clerk since 2011. Mr. Barbosa is also a professor within the Master’s in Legislative Affairs Program at the Center for Continuing Education and Professional Development (CEFOR, Chamber of Deputies). His research interests involve constitutional history and constitutional rights, election law, international law of human rights, and legislative process. He received his Bachelor of Law degree from the Federal University of Minas Gerais in 2000, and both his Master (2005) and PhD (2009) from the University of Brasília. During the summer and fall terms of 2014, Mr. Barbosa was a Michigan Grotius Research Scholar at the University of Michigan Law School.

Ana Beatriz Robalinho is an LL.M. graduate of Yale Law School. She is also currently pursuing her Master’s degree at the University of São Paulo (USP), in Brazil, with a dissertation that focuses on constitutional mutation, informal constitutional change and its consequences for democracy. She has been a member of the Brazilian Bar Association since 2013. She has also been a member of the University of Sao Paulo’s teaching program (PAE) since 2014, jointly teaching seminars for undergraduate law students. Ms. Robalinho also worked as an academic assistant at the Brazilian Institute of Public Law between 2013 and 2015, where she conducted research on constitutional law. She holds a Bachelor of Law degree from the University of Brasília (UnB).

Miguel Calmon Dantas is Professor of Political Science and Constitutional Law of the Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Professor of Constitutional Law and Course Coordinator of Law at the Unifacs. He is also a public lawyer for the State of Bahia, a member of Bahia’s Legal Academy of Letters, and a member of the Constitutional Studies Commission of the Bar Association of Brazil – Bahia Section. Professor Calmon Dantas has authored legal articles for specialized books and periodicals on the subject of public law. He holds a Doctor in Public Law from the UFBA. His doctoral thesis was entitled “Fundamental Right to Existential Maximum.” He also has a post-graduate degree in Constitutional Law from the Universidad de Salamanca in Spain (2011).

Pablo Contreras is a part-time Professor of Law at Universidad Alberto Hurtado and Universidad Diego Portales (Chile). He is also currently a Ph.D. candidate at Northwestern University. His research focuses on general theory of human rights and constitutional law, transparency and freedom of information. Some of his publications include DICCIONARIO CONSTITUCIONAL CHILENO (co-authored with Gonzalo García) (Tribunal Constitucional de Chile 2014); SECRETOS DE ESTADO (Thomson Reuters, 2014); PODER PRIVADO Y DERECHOS (EdicionesUAH, 2009). Professor Contreras holds an LL.M. from Northwestern University (2011).

Fernando José Gonçalves Acunha is an attorney, Professor of Constitutional and Administrative Law at UniCEUB Law School (Brasília/DF - Brazil), and a Ph.D. Candidate at University of Brasília Law School. Gonçalves Acunha has taught in the areas of constitutional law, administrative law, and legal theory. He was a member of the Human Rights Commission (Comissão de Direitos Humanos) and the Social Rights Commission of OAB/DF (Comissão de Direitos Sociais da OAB/DF). He earned a Master’s of Law from University of Brasilia Law School.

Domingo Lovera Parmo is an Assistant Professor of Law at Universidad Diego Portales (Chile) and is pursuing a Ph.D. at Osgoode Hall Law School. His research focuses on constitutional law, freedom of expression, social rights, and constitutional rights of children. Some of his publications include CONSTITUTIONAL LAW IN CHILE (co-authored with Javier Couso et al.) (Kluwer Law International 2013); Implosive Courts, Law, and Social Transformation: The Chilean Case, 3 CAMBRIDGE STUDENT L. REV. (2007); Access to Medical Treatment for People Living with HIV/AIDS: Success without Victory in Chile (co-authored with Jorge Contesse), 8 SUR INTL’ J. HUM. RTS. 150 (2008); Reflections on the Human Rights Challenges of Consolidating Democracies: Recent Developments in the Inter-American System of Human Rights (co-authored with Judith Schönsteiner and Alma Beltrán y Puga), 11 HUM. RTS. L. REV. 362 (2011); Latin American Social Constitutionalism: Courts and Popular Participation (co-authored with Natalia Angel-Cabo), in SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS IN THEORY AND PRACTICE: CRITICAL INQUIRIES (Helena Alviar et al. eds.) (Routledge 2015). Professor Lovera Parmo holds a J.D. from Universidad Diego Portales (1990) and an LL.M. from Columbia University (2007), where he was a Human Rights Fellow – Harlan Fiske Stone Scholar.

Mariana Mota Prado is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Law, University of Toronto. Prior to joining the University of Toronto in 2006, she worked for the Private Participation in Infrastructure Database Project at the World Bank (2004) and was a fellow of the Olin Center for Law, Economics and Public Policy at Yale Law School (2005). During the 2012-13 academic year, she was a visiting researcher at MIT's Political Science Department. A Brazilian national, she regularly teaches intensive courses at Getulio Vargas Foundation in Rio de Janeiro and collaborates with Brazilian scholars on projects related to institutional reforms in Brazil. Her scholarship focuses on law and development, regulated industries, and comparative law. Professor Mota Prado holds a law degree (LL.B.) from the University of São Paulo (2000), and Master's (LL.M.) and Doctorate degrees from Yale Law School (2002 and 2008, respectively).

Cristiano Paixão is Professor of Legal History and Constitutional Law at the University of Brasília Law School. He was Visiting Professor at the Master’s Program in Constitutional Law at Seville University and has published extensively about constitutional history. He is a member of the Brazilian Amnesty Committee (Ministry of Justice), was one of the coordinators of the Anísio Teixeira Memory and Truth Commission (University of Brasília), and is a prosecutor at the Public Labor Prosecutor’s Office. Professor Paixão has a Master degree from the Federal University of Santa Catarina and a Doctor in Law degree from the Federal University of Minas Gerais, with post-doctoral studies in historiography at École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales de Paris and in modern history at Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa.

Francisca Pou Giménez is Associate Professor of Law at the Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (ITAM) in Mexico City, where she teaches Constitutional Law and Comparative Constitutional Law. Before joining the ITAM faculty, she was law clerk to Justice Cossío in the Mexican Supreme Court. She is editor of the legal theory peer-reviewed journal Isonomía and a member of the Mexican National System of Researchers. Her writing focuses on courts, rights and constitutions. In this last area, she has written articles and book chapters exploring the Mexican patterns of constitutional change and the characteristic features of Mexican constitutionalism within the Latin American region. She holds a Law Degree from Pompeu Fabra University in Spain, as well as a Masters and a Doctorate Degree from Yale University in the U.S.

Gonzalo Andrés Ramírez-Cleves is Professor of Constitutional Law and Philosophy of Law at the Universidad Externado de Colombia, where he has also been a researcher at the Center for Constitutional Studies Carlos Restrepo Piedrahita since 2004. His book entitled LIMITS TO CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT IN COLOMBIA: THE CONCEPT OF THE CONSTITUTION AS THE BASIS FOR THE RESTRICTION (2005) was nominated as best doctoral thesis. In this text, he analyzes the tensions between democratic power and the principle of supremacy of the Constitution in the power to amend the constitution. He has also written books related to globalization of the law, poverty and the law, Kelsen theory of law, and legal blogs for legal education. He has been a Visiting Professor at the University College of London (UCL), University Paris X (Nanterre), Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP), Catholic University of Guayaquil (Ecuador), and Universidad de San Andrés (Bolivia). Professor Ramírez-Cleves holds a Doctor degree from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (2003), a Specialization in Constitutional Law and Political Science from the Centro de Estudios Constitucionales y Políticos de Madrid (2000), and obtained his Law degree from Universidad Externado de Colombia (1997).

Eneida Desiree Salgado is Professor in the Department of Public Law and Professor of the Graduate Programs in Law and in Public Policies at the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR). She is also a researcher and vice-leader of the Núcleo de Investigações Constitucionais at the same institution. Professor Salgado published works include “Constitution and Democracy: Brick by Brick in a (Almost) Logical Design – Twenty Year of Building the Brazilian Democratic Project” (2007), “Electoral Constitutional Principles” (2010), and “Information Access Act” (2015). Her areas of research include election law, democratic theories, constitutional jurisdiction, fundamental rights, gender quotas, and public policies. Professor Salgado holds Master’s and Doctor degrees in Public Law from the UFPR and has conducted post-doctoral research on the subject of “Election Administration and Electoral Jurisdiction: An Analysis of the Mexican Model and a Criticism of the Brazilian Choice” at the Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM).

Guilherme Sena de Assunção is Professor of Philosophy of Law and Legal Institutions in the Faculty of Legal and Social Sciences of the University Centre of Brasília (UniCEUB) and founder and consultant for the Beta Institute for Internet and Democracy (Ibidem). He worked as legal and legislative advisor in the Brazilian House of Representatives from 2007 to 2016. Professor Sena de Assunção has been part of the research groups Law and Politics as well as Digital Culture and Democracy, both from UnB. His research interests include political and democratic theory, theories of the State, philosophical fundamentals of law and authority, bio- politics, and critiques of liberalism. Professor Sena de Assunção holds a Bachelor of Laws and a Master of Laws (State and Constitutional) from the University of Brasília (UnB), with an emphasis on constitution and democracy, having written the thesis “Internet and Democratization of Political Representation: Mismatches of an Arranged Wedding.”

Mariana Velasco Rivera is a J.S.D. candidate at Yale Law School. Her research focuses on constitutional law and politics in Mexico, with particular emphasis on the legal and political foundations of judicial supremacy and the effects that the Mexican Supreme Court has had in policy-making processes. Her work draws on her previous experience clerking at the Mexican Supreme Court for Justice José Ramón Cossío Díaz. Prior to her doctoral studies at Yale, Ms. Velasco Rivera completed her Law degree at Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México and her LL.M. at Yale Law School. She also assisted in coordinating a seminar on case monitoring at the Mexican Supreme Court at Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas and interned for Mexico City’s Attorney General’s Office. Ms. Velasco Rivera has previously written on and taught seminars in constitutional law, human rights, due process, and freedom of expression.

Diego Werneck Arguelhes is Professor of Law at the Fundação Getulio Vargas Law School in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (FGV Direito Rio), where he teaches courses on constitutional theory, comparative constitutional law, and Supreme Court decision-making. In January and February2016, he was a visiting researcher at the Max Plank Institute for Comparative Public and International Law (Heidelberg, Germany). Professor Arguelhes's research focuses on judicial politics, the comparative design of judicial institutions, and the relationship between constitutional change and judicial behavior. He is also a regular contributor to the Brazilian press on issues of Supreme Court adjudication. Professor Arguelhes holds an LL.B. and M.A. (Public Law) from the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), and an LL.M. (2008) and Doctorate (J.S.D., 2014) from Yale Law School.

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